The benzene urinary metabolites phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, and muconic acid were measured with an isotope dilution gas chromatography mass spectroscopy assay and strongly correlated with concentrations of benzene air
The urinary concentrations of phenol were linearly related to the time weighted average concentrations of benzene in the breathzone air; the variation was so small that those exposed to 10 ppm benzene could be separated from the non-exposed at least on a group basis when the phenol
concentration was corrected either for creatinine concentration or for specific gravity.3. Phenol concentrations in the air near phenol
disinfectant solutions were measured.
Application of a pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization method in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of trace levels of halogenated phenols in air
, water and sediment samples. ... The detection limits of phenols in air
, water and sediment were 0.0033 - 0.0073 microg/m3, 0.0066 - 0.0147 microg/L and 0.33 - 0.73 microg/kg, respectively.6.
In this study, a homologous series and isomers of 30 volatile phenols, including monoalkylated phenols and di- and trimethylphenols, were evaluated by determining their aroma attributes and their odor detection thresholds in air
. ... In particular, phenols with monoalkyl groups in the meta-position were found with very low odor detection thresholds of <1 ng/L air
Peikert M et al: Phase behavior and molecular packing of octadecyl phenols and their methyl ethers at the air
Enhancement of specific nitrogenase activity in Azospirillum brasilense and Klebsiella pneumoniae, inhibition in Rhizobium japonicum under air by phenol
. ... Specific nitrogenase activity in Azospirillum brasilense ATCC 29145 in surface cultures under air is enhanced from about 50 nmol C2H4 X mg protein -1 X h-1 to 400 nmol C2H4 by the addition of 1 mM phenol
. ... A smaller but significant enhancement of nitrogenase activity by about 100% in surface cultures under air was found with Klebsiella pneumoniae K 11 after addition of 1 mM phenol
[Evaluation of phenol and formaldehyde concentrations in air
of certain newly built houses on the terrain of Białystok].11.
Although investigators often report artificially high levels of 8-OHGua in DNA samples that have been exposed to phenol solutions and/or air
during processing, few quantitative results are available. ... We show that routine phenol-based DNA purification procedures can increase 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels 20-fold in samples that are exposed to air after the phenol
is removed from the solutions. ... Most importantly, phenol treatments of DNA are shown to sensitize DNA to 8-OHdG formation by subsequent exposures to air
A second experiment, using enriched air to prevent oxygen limitation, resulted in the complete degradation of 10-g phenol
[Polarographic method of determining phenol in the air
]. ... A specific, highly sensitive and exact polarographic method of phenol determination in the air is
Both the amplification of complement-fixing activity and the appearance of IgG-precipitating activity in phenol-containing grain-dust extract were dependent on the presence of air and were inhibited by heating the extract before phenol
[Method for the gas chromatographic determination of phenol in air
A method for the collection and determination of phenol and bisphenol A in air
. ... An analytical method has been developed for the determination of phenol and bisphenol A in air
Benzene can be efficiently converted into phenol when it is treated by either corona or dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas operating at atmospheric pressure in air
or mixtures of N(2) and O(2).22.
An economical and green approach to phenol preparation by the direct oxidation of aryl Grignard reagents using compressed air
in continuous gas-liquid segmented flow systems is described.
Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, resorcinol, phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol in untreated air
samples using spectrofluorimetry and a custom multiple linear regression-successive projection algorithm. ... In this study, a novel, simple, and efficient spectrofluorimetric method to determine directly and simultaneously five phenolic compounds (hydroquinone, resorcinol, phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol) in air
samples is presented.25.
[Toxicokinetics of benzene in humans. Excretion of phenol with urine and benzene with expired air
after single and 4-day inhalation exposure]. ... Two phases of the excretion of unchanged benzene in the expired air (t 1/2 approximately 2 h and approximately 20 h) and phenol
in the urine (t 1/2 approximately 3 h and approximately 12 h) were observed. ... Concentrations of benzene in the expired air and the rate of excretion of phenol
in urine were higher after 4-days exposure than after single exposure, which results from benzene toxicokinetics.
[Basis for the character of the combined action of phenol and styrene in atmospheric air
An assessment of the suitable operating conditions for the CeO2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyzed wet air oxidation of phenol
. ... It has been shown that the CeO2/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst is a feasible alternative to CeO2 for the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol
because it remains an effective catalyst and yet is cheaper to prepare.28.
Biodegradation of phenol in synthetic and industrial wastewater by Rhodococcus erythropolis UPV-1 immobilized in an air
-stirred reactor with clarifier. ... Under optimum operation conditions in a laboratory-scale air-stirred reactor, the immobilized cells were able to completely degrade phenol in synthetic wastewater at a volumetric productivity of 11.5 kg phenol
The aim of the present study is to assess whether certain ecophysiological responses (contents of total phenols, total proanthocyanidins, and total and simple flavonols), in the needles of Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis Mill.) may be valid bioindicators for the assessment of the air
[Gas-chromatographic analysis of phenol and formaldehyde in the water, water extracts and air
Bimetallic catalysts for continuous catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
. ... This study explores the ability of bimetallic supported catalysts to oxidize aqueous phenol solutions using air
[Chromatographic mass-spectrometric determination of the air content of styrene, phenol
, and naphthalene]. ... A selective chromatographic mass-spectrometric procedure was developed to determine of air styrene, phenol, and naphthalene in the concentration range of 0.001-0.05 mg/m3, Analysis used preconcentration of the compounds
on a solid sorbent, followed by thermal desorption into the capillary column of a chromatograph.33.
[Quantitative analysis of phenol in water, model media simulating food products and in the air during sanitary and chemical
examination of polymer materials].
The mixed exposure to phenolic derivatives of exposed workers during their work shift was monitored by personal air sampling of the breathing-zone air and by measurements of phenol
, o-cresol, and xylenol isomer concentrations in shift-end urine. ... Concentrations of phenolic compounds were determined in the breathing-zone air during the work shift, whereas concentrations of phenol
, cresol, and xylenol isomers were measured in urine collected after the work shift. ... Concentrations of phenols in air
and urine were determined by gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. ... RESULTS: The time-weighted average concentrations of phenol, cresol, and xylenol isomers detected in breathing-zone air
showed that the exposure level of the workers was relatively low.36.
Simultaneous measurements in air and dew indicate that phenol
present in dew exceeds that expected in equilibrated samples, while the opposite occurs with 4-NP.37.
Thermodynamic and kinetic study of phenol degradation by a non-catalytic wet air
oxidation process. ... This work is dedicated to an accurate evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetics aspects of phenol degradation using wet air
oxidation process. ... Concerning the thermodynamic phase equilibria, experimental and modelling results are obtained for different binary systems (water/nitrogen, water/air) and ternary system (water/nitrogen/phenol
Laccase-initiated oxidative coupling reactions of phenol and its derivatives with 4-aminoantipyrene using air
as an oxidant has been investigated.39.
Acceptable phenol concentration in the air is
10 mg/m3 in Poland. ... Toxic effects of phenol were reported in case of occupational exposition to 5 mg/m3 of air
. ... Data concerning urine levels of phenol in children living in the buildings of increased phenol levels in the air
and health impact of this are discussed.
Enzymatic oxidative polymerization of m-ethynylphenol possessing two reactive groups, phenol and acetylene moieties, was carried out in aqueous methanol under air
Chlorinated phenols, which are used primarily as wood preservatives and fungicides, are present in most air
, water, and soil samples in industrialized areas as well as in the urine of most people.
Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
by CeO2 catalyst--effect of reaction conditions. ... Catalyst loading influences the reaction via the free-radical chain reaction involved in the catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
This note describes the efficient and highly regioselective synthesis of 2-(2'-alkenylphenyl)phenol derivatives via palladium-catalyzed 2'-alkenylation of 2-arylphenols directed by the phenolic hydroxyl group using benzoquinone as the oxidant in an atmosphere of air
CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: These measurements demonstrate that phenols and nitrophenols are emitted to the atmosphere and further measurements, in order to confirm their sources, their behaviour and their potential impact to the air
quality and to human health should be undertaken especially since the literature collected is relatively old.
[Indoor air guide values for phenol
]. ... For health evaluation of phenol in indoor air
a qualified working-place study emphasizing the POD hemo- and hepatotoxicity as well as results of a limited inhalation-study which underline neurological effects on rats were used.51.
[Effects of air pollution by phenol
in apartments of newly built houses on selected urinary biochemical parameters in children].
Due to the solubility of phenol and formaldehyde, in the manufacture process, water was added to lower contents of phenol and formaldehyde in bakelite, and content of urotropine was reduced in bakelite sand presceription to lower air concentrations of phenol
, formaldehyde and ammonia. ... As contents of phenol and formaldehyde in bakelite reduced to 4.9% and 0.037% from 6.32% and 0.062%, respectively, air concentrations of phenol
, formaldehyde and ammonia lowered to 0.61 mg/m3, 0.69 mg/m3, and 5.1 mg/m3 from 2.94 mg/m3, 1.72 mg/m3, and 12.9 mg/m3, respectively, and incidence rate of skin disease in the employees of the workplace decreased to zero from 80.2%.
We show for the first time quantitative online measurements of five nitrated phenol (NP) compounds in ambient air (nitrophenol C6H5NO3, methylnitrophenol C7H7NO3, nitrocatechol C6H5NO4, methylnitrocatechol C7H7NO4, and dinitrophenol C6H4N2O5) measured with a micro-orifice volatilization impactor (MOVI) high-resolution chemical
ionization mass spectrometer in Detling, United Kingdom during January-February, 2012.57.
Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
by various CeO2 catalysts. ... Investigations of various CeO2 catalysts using XRD, 02-TPD, H2-TPR and catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
showed that CeO2 calcined under higher thermal impact (designated as type A) displayed excellent catalytic ability for the redox reaction of organics.58.
Being skin contact a mode of entry of apreciable concern, the AA. stress out that priority in exposure monitoring should be given to biological tests such as urinary phenol level and benzene concentration in expired air
Toxicological estimation of doses accepted by smokers smoking 20 cigarettes a day show that they are 9-16 times higher than the maximum acceptable 24 hour dose, determined during environmental exposure to phenols from atmospheric air
Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol
-containing water using corona discharge technique. ... Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol
-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column.61.
[Flow injection analysis method for hygienic examination of volatile phenol compounds in the air
of residential area]. ... OBJECTIVE: To establish a flow injection analysis for hygienic examination of volatile phenol compounds in the air
of residential area. ... METHOD: Volatile phenol compounds in the air
was sampled by a fritted glass bubbler with 10 ml 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide inside and analyzed by a flow injection analyzer. ... CONCLUSION: This method meets the requirements for the analysis of volatile phenol compounds in the air
of residential area.
In situ solid-phase microextraction and post on-fiber derivatization combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for determination of phenol in occupational air
. ... A method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) for determination of phenol in air
Studies have been carried out at different feed concentrations of phenol, air
flow rates and feed flow rates.64.
Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
over CeO2-TiO2 catalyst in the batch reactor and the packed-bed reactor. ... CeO2-TiO2 catalysts are prepared by coprecipitation method, and the activity and stability in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol
are investigated in a batch reactor and packed-bed reactor. ... In a packed-bed reactor using CeO2-TiO2 1/1 particle catalyst, over 91% COD and 80% TOC removals are obtained at the reaction temperature of 140 degrees C, the air total pressure of 3.5 MPa, the phenol
concentration of 1000 mg/L for 100 h continue reaction.
Characteristics of titania supported copper oxide catalysts for wet air oxidation of phenol
. ... % for the wet air oxidation of phenol
over the CuO(x)/TiO(2) catalysts in this work.67.
[Determining the vapors of single atom phenols (phenol and ortho-, meta- and para-cresols) in the air
by the ultraviolet spectrophotometric method].
To establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for benzene exposure, the concentration of benzene in alveolar air and phenol
in urine was studied in conjunction with personal monitoring data both in workers and volunteers. ... There existed good correlation between benzene concentration in alveolar air, phenol
concentration in urine by the end of workshift and the benzene concentration in workplace when the exposure level was above 5 mg/m3.69.
Long-term phenol, cresols and BTEX monitoring in urban air
. ... This paper reports the results of a long-term monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), phenol and cresols in the air of Padua during a wide period of the year 2007 using two radial passive samplers (Radiello system) equipped with BTEX- and phenol
Influence of the different oxidation treatment on the performance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
. ... Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized by different oxidants (HNO(3)/H(2)SO(4), H(2)O(2), O(3) and air) have been used as catalysts for the wet air oxidation of phenol
. ... All the functionalized MWCNTs exhibit good activity in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol
In this paper, expiratory benzene due to environmental and occupational benzene exposure during the work-shift and the morning after was studied by the analysing benzene concentrations in environmental air, in breathing air and in urinary phenol
After treatment, phenol was eluted from the resin by aqueous NaOH, and the resin could also be regenerated by heating in air
Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
using CeO2 as the catalyst. Kinetic study and mechanism development. ... Using a CeO2 catalyst prepared from CeCl3.7H2O under high thermal impact, the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol
was effectively implemented.
METHODS: Formaldehyde and phenol were monitored in the workplace air
Kinetics study on catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
by several metal oxide catalysts. ... A first-order kinetics model was established to study the catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
at different temperature when these catalysts were used. ... This is consistent with the result of catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol and
the COD removal can be arrived at 98.2% at temperature 210 degrees C, oxygen partial pressure 3 MPa and reaction time 30 min.76.
[Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
with Ru/ZrO2-CeO2 catalyst]. ... Wet air oxidation of phenol with Ru/ZrO2-CeO2 was systematically investigated and results showed that Ru/ZrO2-CeO2 could significantly increase the removal of COD and phenol
Wet air oxidation of nitrobenzene enhanced by phenol
. ... Simultaneous nitrobenzene and phenol wet air
oxidation was investigated in a stainless autoclave at temperature range of 180-220 degrees C and 1.0 MPa oxygen partial pressure.79.
Degradation of phenol via wet-air
oxidation over CuO/CeO2-ZrO2 nanocatalyst synthesized employing ultrasound energy: physicochemical characterization and catalytic performance. ... Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol
was carried out under atmospheric pressure of oxygen at 160 degrees C in a stirred batch reactor over copper catalysts supported by CeO2-ZrO2.
[Use of quantitative chemical characteristics of phenol ethers in the prognostication of toxicity and MPEL in the air
of work areas].82.
[Kinetics of catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
in trickle bed reactor]. ... By using a trickle bed reactor which was designed by the authors, the catalytic wet air oxidation reaction of phenol
on CuO/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst was studied. ... The kinetic model of pseudo homogenous reactor fits the catalytic wet air oxidation reaction of phenol
Methylene chloride exposure was measured during two work days by personal air sampling, while area sampling was used for phenol
Catalytic behaviour and copper leaching of Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel for catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol
. ... A Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method was tested for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol
The reaction employs (CuOH)2CO3 catalyst, air as an oxidant, phenol
or alcohol coupling partner, DMF, pyridine, or DMPU solvent, and K2CO3, tetramethylguanidine, or K3PO4 base at 70-130 °C.
Marked disorders of cellular regulation in machinery operators of activated carbon and coagulants production are seen with observed normal content of phenol in the air
The multicomponent in the mixture, which contains ten air toxic organic components, such as benzene, phenixin, chlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, phenol
, toluene, methanol, o-cresol, m-cresol and p-cresol, is simultaneously determined.88.
An efficient and green intramolecular oxidative phenol coupling for the direct construction of spirocyclohexadienones has been developed, which uses environment-friendly sodium nitrite as the catalyst and oxygen in the air
as the terminal oxidant.
Chemosorption sampling and analysis of formaldehyde in air. Influence on recovery during the simultaneous sampling of formaldehyde, phenol
, furfural and furfuryl alcohol.90.
METHODS: Analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolised benzene in urine, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA), and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene; catechol, hydroquinone, and phenol
, in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene concentrations from 0.12 to 68 ppm, the time weighted average (TWA).91.
Anion-exchange resins modified with metal-porphine (M-Pr) have been investigated to develop a solid catalyst in the oxidative reaction of phenols by O2 in air
There was correlation between benzene and naphthalene in the breathing zone air and phenol
and 1-naphthol in the urine of coke plant workers.94.
The atmospheric degradation of the substituted phenols detected in combustion emissions is therefore expected to produce related oxidants on the aerosol particles present in the air
[Effect of phenol administered with air
and water on white rats during long-term exposure].97.
METHODS: Analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolised benzene in blood and urine, urinary trans, transmuconic acid, and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene: phenol
, catechol, and hydroquinone.