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1. Buescher JJ: Temporomandibular joint disorders. Am Fam Physician; 2007 Nov 15;76(10):1477-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Temporomandibular joint disorders.
  • Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint.
  • Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies.
  • Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction.
  • Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use.
  • Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Cognitive Therapy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Injections, Intra-Articular. Physical Therapy Modalities

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  • [SummaryForPatientsIn] Am Fam Physician. 2007 Nov 15;76(10):1483-4 [18052013.001]
  • (PMID = 18052012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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2. Knyihár-Csillik E, Szücs A, Csillik B: Iontophoretically applied microtubule inhibitors induce transganglionic degenerative atrophy of primary central nociceptive terminals and abolish chronic autochtonous pain. Acta Neurol Scand; 1982 Oct;66(4):401-12
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  • Transcutaneous iontophoresis of microtubule inhibitors (Vinblastin, Vincristin, Formyl-Leurosin) in rats induces depletion of fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) and transganglionic degenerative atrophy (trggl. deg. atr.) of the central terminals of primary nociceptive neurons, probably via blockade of axoplasmic transport in the peripheral sensory nerves.
  • 40 out of 48 patients suffering from chronic intractable pain of diverse etiology (postherpetic, paresthetic, ischaemic and trigeminal neuralgia, alcoholic and diabetic polyneuropathy, meralgia, brachialgia, discopathia, arthropathia and terminal pain) were successfully treated with Vinblastin or Vincristin iontophoresis.
  • Iontophoretically applied microtubule inhibitors do not affect the blood cell count, have no side-effects and do not impair the skin at the site of application.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase / metabolism. Animals. Atrophy. Axonal Transport / drug effects. Humans. Iontophoresis. Muridae. Substantia Gelatinosa / drug effects

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINCRISTINE .
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  • (PMID = 6183918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6314
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol. Scand.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vinca Alkaloids; 54022-49-0 / formyl-leurosine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase
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3. Veves A, Akbari CM, Primavera J, Donaghue VM, Zacharoulis D, Chrzan JS, DeGirolami U, LoGerfo FW, Freeman R: Endothelial dysfunction and the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase in diabetic neuropathy, vascular disease, and foot ulceration. Diabetes; 1998 Mar;47(3):457-63
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  • [Title] Endothelial dysfunction and the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase in diabetic neuropathy, vascular disease, and foot ulceration.
  • Vasodilation on the dorsal foot in response to heating and iontophoresis of acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) were measured using single-point laser Doppler and laser Doppler imaging in diabetic patients with neuropathy (DN), with neuropathy and vascular disease (DI), with Charcot arthropathy (DA), and without complications (D), and in healthy control subjects (C).
  • The endothelial-mediated response to acetylcholine was reduced in the DN (17 [11-25]), DA (22 [2-34]), and DI (13 [2-30]) groups compared with the D (47 [24-58]) and C (44 [31-70], P < 0.001) groups.
  • The non-endothelial-mediated response to sodium nitroprusside was also reduced in the DI (4 [0-18]), DN (17 [9-26]), and DA (21 [11-31]) groups compared with the D (37 [19-41]) and C (44 [26-67], P < 0.0001) groups.
  • There was a significant reduction in vasodilation in the DI group compared with all other groups (P < 0.0001).
  • Reduced expression of ecNOS may be a major contributing factor for endothelial dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcholine. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Biopsy. Cohort Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Humans. Iontophoresis / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Nitroprusside. Reference Values. Vasodilator Agents


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4. Geng XL, Lu T, Yang LB, Zhou QL, Qin H, Liang Q: Clinical curative effect observation of therapy of Chinese drug iontophoresis in treatment of degenerative osteoarthropathy. Pak J Pharm Sci; 2015 Jul;28(4 Suppl):1541-4
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  • [Title] Clinical curative effect observation of therapy of Chinese drug iontophoresis in treatment of degenerative osteoarthropathy.
  • Degenerative osteoarthropathy is a kind of arthrosis induced by various factors, with main pathological feature of articular cartilage and syndesmophyte formation.
  • This paper mainly discussed the clinical curative effect of therapy of Chinese drug iontophoresis in degenerative osteoarthropathy.
  • A total of 296 cases of degenerative osteoarthropathy was randomly divided into two groups (with no consideration on gender): Chinese drug iontophoresis group: joint was treated by therapy of Chinese drug iontophoresis and MTZ-F experiment; frequency electrotherapy group: joint was only treated by medium frequency electrotherapy.
  • Result of the study found that, total effective rate of medium frequency electrotherapy group was 74.3%, Chinese medicine iontophoresis group was 93.2%; curative effect of Chinese medicine iontophoresis group was superior to electrotherapy group.
  • It indicates that, Chinese medicine iontophoresis has good clinical effect in the treatment of osteoarthropathy and deserves to be popularized and applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Drugs, Chinese Herbal / administration & dosage. Iontophoresis. Osteoarthritis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 26431653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-601X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal
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5. Puccetti G, Galassi A, Gigli P, Pierallini FM, Pieraccini A, Scalabrino A: [Iontophoresis of tenoxicam in the therapy of osteoarthrosis]. Clin Ter; 1992 Mar;140(3):239-42
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  • [Title] [Iontophoresis of tenoxicam in the therapy of osteoarthrosis].
  • After a brief physiopathological research about iontophoresis applications, the authors examine this treatment by two drugs (Tenoxicam and acetylsalicylic acid) in a group of patients suffering from painful osteoarthritis.
  • They came to the conclusion that the treatment is efficacious with both substances though realising a quicker analgesic result in the group treated with tenoxicam.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Iontophoresis. Osteoarthritis / drug therapy. Piroxicam / analogs & derivatives

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID .
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  • (PMID = 1568367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; 59804-37-4 / tenoxicam; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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6. Ulrych I: [Optidase in the treatment of arthrosis by intramuscular injections and iontophoresis (author's transl)]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax; 1979 May 8;68(19):617-9
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  • [Title] [Optidase in the treatment of arthrosis by intramuscular injections and iontophoresis (author's transl)].
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis / drug therapy. Catalase / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Evaluation. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Iontophoresis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 377272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-2058
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin Praxis = Revue suisse de médecine Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz. Rundsch. Med. Prax.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase
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7. Williame E, Anthoine F, Plissart M: [Diclofenac iontophoresis in the treatment of arthrosis]. J Belge Med Phys Rehabil; 1982;5(2):61-5
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  • [Title] [Diclofenac iontophoresis in the treatment of arthrosis].
  • [Transliterated title] L'ionophorèse au Diclofénac dans le traitement de l'arthrose.
  • [MeSH-major] Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Iontophoresis. Joint Diseases / therapy. Phenylacetates / administration & dosage

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DICLOFENAC .
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  • (PMID = 7153206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-4766
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal belge de médecine physique et de réhabilitation. = Belgisch tijdschrift voor fysische geneeskunde en rehabilitatie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Belge Med Phys Rehabil
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] BELGIUM
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phenylacetates; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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8. Geng XL, Sun XH, Zhang J, Yang LB, Liang QD: Observation of the clinical effects of iontophoresis of a chinese drug in the treatment of degenerative osteoarthropathy. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents; 2015 Jan-Mar;29(1):135-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Observation of the clinical effects of iontophoresis of a chinese drug in the treatment of degenerative osteoarthropathy.
  • Degenerative osteoarthropathy, a kind of arthrosis induced by various factors, mainly affects articular cartilage and causes syndesmophyte formation.
  • This paper mainly discusses the clinical effects of iontophoresis of the Chinese drug in treating degenerative osteoarthropathy.
  • A total of 296 cases of degenerative osteoarthropathy were randomly divided into two groups (of both genders): the iontophoresis group: the joint was treated with iontophoresis of the Chinese drug and a medium frequency electrotherapy instrument; the frequency electrotherapy group: the joint was treated only by medium frequency electrotherapy.
  • The results of the study showed that, the total effective rate in the medium frequency electrotherapy group was 74.3%, the iontophoresis group was 93.2%, indicating the curative effect of iontophoresis of the Chinese medicine.
  • The above finding indicates that, iontophoresis has a good clinical effect in the treatment of osteoarthropathy and deserves to be promoted and applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Drugs, Chinese Herbal / therapeutic use. Iontophoresis / methods. Osteoarthritis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods. Humans. Joints / physiology. Pain Measurement. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 25864750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-974X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal
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9. Löcsey L, Gyarmati J: Arthropathy in haemodialysed patients. Acta Med Hung; 1986;43(4):413-22
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  • [Title] Arthropathy in haemodialysed patients.
  • The joint disorders associated with osteodystrophy of 124 regularly haemodialysed patients are reviewed.
  • It is pointed out that in osteoarthropathy accompanying chronic renal failure or haemodialysis the bones are generally affected first, arthropathy being secondary to this process.
  • In addition to the classic signs and symptoms of arthropathy (calcification, pain, stiffness) capsulitis, carpal tunnel syndrome and in 3 cases avascular necrosis were observed.
  • The current preventive and therapeutic measures are reviewed and in this context the benefits of combined local lidocaine, and steroid iontophoresis are emphasized in the light of personal observations.
  • [MeSH-major] Joint Diseases / etiology. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects. Renal Osteodystrophy / complications

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  • (PMID = 3601587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0236-5286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Hung
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] HUNGARY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates
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10. Dupont JS Jr: The prevalence of trigeminal neuritis with TMD. Cranio; 2003 Jul;21(3):180-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Subjects with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) occasionally present with additional orofacial pain complaints.
  • These can arise from dysfunction in teeth, bones, ligaments, tendons, nerves, and other structures.
  • Each subject in this study had the involved nerves blocked with local anesthesia injections or lidocaine iontophoresis to assist in confirming the source of pain.
  • Early recognition of this disorder is important because treatment is usually more successful in the acute peripheral state.
  • [MeSH-major] Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / complications. Trigeminal Neuralgia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Facial Pain / drug therapy. Facial Pain / etiology. Female. Headache / drug therapy. Headache / etiology. Humans. Male. Nerve Block. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12889673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-9634
  • [Journal-full-title] Cranio : the journal of craniomandibular practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cranio
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Rosenthal M: [The iontophoresis with optidase and thiomucase in the treatment of rheumatic soft tissue disorders and osteoarthrosis (author's transl)]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax; 1979 Jul 3;68(27):892-4
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  • [Title] [The iontophoresis with optidase and thiomucase in the treatment of rheumatic soft tissue disorders and osteoarthrosis (author's transl)].
  • [Transliterated title] Die Iontophorese mit Optidase und Thiomucase bei der Behandlung rheumatischer Affektionen.
  • [MeSH-major] Catalase / administration & dosage. Glucuronidase / administration & dosage. Lyases / administration & dosage. Rheumatic Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Glycosaminoglycans. Humans. Iontophoresis

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  • (PMID = 157481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-2058
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin Praxis = Revue suisse de médecine Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz. Rundsch. Med. Prax.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycosaminoglycans; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase; EC 4.- / Lyases
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12. Hamdy O, Abou-Elenin K, LoGerfo FW, Horton ES, Veves A: Contribution of nerve-axon reflex-related vasodilation to the total skin vasodilation in diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. Diabetes Care; 2001 Feb;24(2):344-9
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  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The skin microcirculation was evaluated at the forearm level in 69 healthy subjects and 42 nonneuropathic diabetic patients and at the foot level in 27 healthy subjects and 101 diabetic patients (33 with neuropathy, 23 with Charcot arthropathy, 32 with peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy, and 13 without complications).
  • Two single-point laser probes were used to measure total and neurovascular vasodilation response to the iontophoresis of 1% acetylcholine, 1% sodium nitroprusside, and deionized water.
  • A significantly lower nonspecific nerve-axon-related vasodilation was observed during the iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside, which does not specifically stimulate the C nociceptive fibers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcholine / administration & dosage. Adult. Diabetic Angiopathies / physiopathology. Female. Foot. Forearm. Humans. Iontophoresis. Male. Middle Aged. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11213890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-5992
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 169D1260KM / Nitroprusside; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
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